Umar (Arabic: عمر بن الخطاب; Transliteration: `Umar ibn al-Khattāb, c. 586–590 – 644) c. 2 Nov. (Dhu al-Hijjah 26, 23 Hijri) , was a leading companion and adviser to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and became the second Muslim ruler after Muhammad's death and ruled for 10 years.
Converting to Islam in the 6th year after Muhammad's first revelation, he spent 18 years in companionship of Muhammad. He succeeded Caliph Abu Bakr on 23 August 634 as the second Caliph, and played a significant role in Islam. Under Umar the Islamic empire expanded at an unprecedented rate ruling the whole Sassanid Persian Empire and more than two thirds of the Eastern Roman Empire. His legislative abilities, his firm political and administrative control over a rapidly expanding empire and his brilliantly coordinated multi-prong attacks against the Sassanid Persian Empire that resulted in the conquest of the Persian empire in less than two years, marked his reputation as a great political and military leader. He was killed by a Persian captive.
|Caliph Umar's empire at its peak, 644.|
|Reign||23 August 634–7 November 644|
|Died||7 November 644|
|Place of death||Medina, Arabia|